Types and cultivation of ampelous peperomia (Peperomia)

Types and cultivation of ampelous peperomia (Peperomia)

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According to the horoscope, the zodiac sign Taurus (April 21 - May 20) flower astrologers include the following plants: Kalanchoe Blossfeld and Mangin, decorative growing begonias (tuberous, multiflorous, winter-flowering), primrose (primrose), Persian cyclamen and Uzambara violet, gloxinia (sinningia) excellent, ampelous peperomias (climbing, large-leaved, creeping).

The genus Peperomia (Peperomia) of the Pepper family (Piperaceae) is quite numerous, numbering more than 1000 species. It comes mainly from the subtropical and tropical regions of South America and the East Indies.

The name peperomia, according to one assumption, is given from combinations of the Greek words pepri (pepper) and omos (the same, similar) because of the similarity with pepper, in another way - from the ancient Indian pipiflam (peppercorn). The basis for the latest version was that the leaves of this plant, when rubbed with your fingers, smell like pepper.

Peperomias are perennial evergreen herbaceous low (15-50 cm) plants with white-green peduncles similar to mouse tails, small nondescript flowers without perianths (they sit in the axils of small thyroid bracts), form thin tail-shaped inflorescences - cobs or ears-panicles.

Because of such peduncles, peperomia is sometimes offensively called a plant with "rat tails". Fruits are dry berries that crumble after ripening even with a slight touch. These plants have slightly succulent leaves, varied in shape, color and structure. Among the species of this genus, there are bushy, erect and ampelous varieties. Under natural conditions, some of them grow on trees and rocks (epiphytes), others are terrestrial.

In indoor conditions, only about 50 species of peperomia are cultivated, and many amateurs willingly keep these slow-growing plants, very decorative thanks to their foliage. Especially those who do not have a large room. The group of ampelous species is of considerable interest among flower growers, although it is much less common than other peperomias (bushy and erect).

Peperomia is reddish (P.rubella) (homeland - Mexico and West Indies) creeping, thin reddish shoots and ovoid leaves. The upper part is green with a dark pattern, the lower one is red.

Peperomia round-leaved (P.rotundifolia) - from the tropics of Central and South America, it is very small - no more than 1 cm, round, even rather lenticular juicy, pale green leaves with a brown pattern.

Peperomia creeping (P.prostrata) - stands out in red and not very large for peperomias, green leaves with silvery or bronze spots, heart-shaped leaves.

Peperomia creeping (P.serpens) - from the tropics of Central and South America, it is characterized by lodging, rising and hanging shoots, as well as light green leaves 3-5 cm long. It has forms with variegated leaves.

Have peperomia naked (P.glabella) - short (15-20 cm) pinkish-greenish stems and alternate green leaves on short petioles, they are round in shape with a blunt apex.

Peperomia climbing or tenacious (P.scandens varitgata) differs in relatively large (almost 5 cm) green leaves with a wide yellow border and a waxy surface for ampelous plants. Its drooping shoots can reach a length of 1-1.3 m. In the Variegated variety, the branches exceed 1.5 m, the leaves are small, pointed with a creamy-white edge, the petioles are pinkish. It is advisable to grow this type of peperomia like a liana, tying it to a support.

Peperomia bristlecone (P.caulibardis) represents an original plant with flowing branched shoots. She has alternate green leaves of a rounded shape on short petioles; stems and petioles are pinkish.

To keep these heat-loving plants - in summer, the optimal temperature is 24 ... 27 ° C - they choose a place with partial shade (in its depths) in the room, or arrange a bright diffused light, and it is even better to place peperomia on the north side, since the sun spoils the leaves. Because of this, their color fades greatly, and sometimes numerous bulges appear on the leaves. Variegated varieties of ampelous peperomias are placed closer to the light, but not in direct sunlight.

These flowers do well under artificial (fluorescent) lighting. Plants do not like cold air and drafts. Because of this, they stop growing.

Since peperomias have very thin, delicate and rather short roots, it is better to plant them in low pots, and at the bottom of the container it is imperative to do high drainage (5-6 cm) with a good drain. The soil substrate for permanent cultivation of peperomia is usually combined from 2/3 of the greenhouse land and 1/3 of river sand. A more fertile soil for them is a mixture of deciduous and soddy soil, peat and sand (3: 2: 1: 1). In hot dry weather, spraying with settled and slightly warmed water is recommended.

Peperomia is watered very carefully, and also with soft and settled water that does not contain calcium salts. During intensive growth, plants are watered abundantly, but excess moisture in the soil should not be allowed. However, the soil should dry out between waterings. At the same time, it is impossible to bring the plant to wilting of the leaves.

Every two weeks, fertilizing is carried out with weakly concentrated solutions of complex mineral fertilizers, free of calcium, but only after abundant watering, so as not to burn the root system.

In winter, they are selected a fairly warm room (18 ... 20 ° C), at temperatures below 15 ° C, peperomias develop very weakly, they do not tolerate cold very well. During this period, watering is sharply reduced, it is preferable to spray them, since the roots easily rot, and the plant loses its decorative effect, it may even die.

Although the succulent leaves of peperomia are equipped with a layer of aquiferous tissue and can sometimes tolerate dry air well, it is better to move them away from heating devices and spray them daily.Many peperomia are epiphytes, therefore they tolerate a lack of moisture better than its excess. With improper care, leaves fall off.

At home, ampelous types of peperomias are usually cultivated for 2-4 years, constantly renewing the plants, transplanted if necessary (in April). Ampel species, as a rule, are propagated in spring by stem cuttings (bush cuttings - by leaf cuttings): cuttings with two leaves are planted in mini-greenhouses (without access to air). They are placed in peat or peat with sphagnum in equal proportions.

But when multiplying a variegated variety, it is advisable to take leaves with a part of the stem in order to preserve the variegated color of the leaves. Sometimes they resort to seed reproduction. Since the seeds are quite small, after sowing in the spring they do not need to be sprinkled with earth. Seedlings appear in 10-14 days. A month later, the seedlings dive into the nutrient mixture - leafy earth + peat + sand (1: 1: 0.5).

Some growers consider this group of plants to be very resistant to pests and diseases. However, the appearance of mealybugs, spider mites and nematodes is possible on them. The worms are washed off with soapy water (20 g / l), while it is better to take liquid potassium soap.

For greater reliability, experts recommend using acaricides (for example, 2-3 treatments are carried out with a 0.2% solution of actellik with an interval of 7-10 days). These drugs are also effective against spider mites, which appear on plants most often at low indoor humidity. Therefore, its number can be limited by regular spraying of plant foliage.

In addition, the stems and leaves of peperomia are susceptible to infectious fungal rot (sulfur and root). On these plant organs, the appearance of spots is noted, on which a gray or pinkish mycelium is often formed.

The occurrence of root rot is sometimes associated with waterlogging of an earthen coma (especially when using heavy soil as a soil substrate). Usually, this disease begins with the appearance of weeping spots on the leaf blade. Then the petiole rots, and the leaf dies.

As measures to combat this phenomenon, it is recommended to remove severely affected leaves with a sharp knife, after which the sections are sprinkled with crushed charcoal. Good results are obtained by spraying foliage and shedding soil with a 0.2% solution of foundationol.

As ampelous plants, flower growers keep peperomias in bowls, baskets or on snags: for small rooms they will be ideal flowers. These decorative foliage plants can be placed in flower displays, in vases to decorate halls and winter gardens.

A. Lazarev, Candidate of Biological Sciences, Senior Researcher, All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Protection

Tips for keeping peperomia at home

    Lighting. The content of peperomia depends on the color of its leaf plates. Unpainted emerald-colored leaves allow the plant to be positioned on windows that are never illuminated by the sun's rays. If the color of the leaves is quite decorative and there are stripes or spotting, then this type requires more illuminated places. In this case, windows with a south, south-east or south-west exposure are suitable. Naturally, during lunch hours, the plant will have to be shaded from the sun. Too bright light will contribute to the rapid wilting of the leaves and their deformation, and if there is not enough light, then the leaf plates will become smaller in size and lose their decorative effect. In the absence of an opportunity, these plants are in rooms with bright but soft lighting, they will have to arrange supplementary lighting with special phytolamps. In principle, peperomias can adapt to any conditions, the only thing that they absolutely cannot stand is drafts.

Content temperature. A decrease in temperature indicators has a rather detrimental effect on peperomia, therefore, with the arrival of autumn, the thermometer should not fall below 14 degrees. For this plant, it becomes a critical drop in temperature already up to 18 degrees during the winter months. But with the arrival of the warm months of the year, peperomia also prefers moderate heat, the indicators should fluctuate between 20-26 degrees.

Air humidity. Peperomia does not express demands on humidity in the air, its normal growth will be at rates of 40-50%. If the species has a glossy surface, it is recommended to periodically spray the plant with soft water, it can be rain, thawed, settled or boiled. Peperomias, which are distinguished by large leaves, are wiped with a soft sponge or gauze dipped in water to remove accumulated dust. But if in peperomia the leaf plates are slightly pubescent or have a wrinkled surface, then they cannot stand it at all when moisture gets on them. To increase humidity, you can place the plant in a large pot and lay layers of sphagnum moss around it (between the walls), which will be regularly moistened. Also, the pots are installed in pallets filled with expanded clay or pebbles, onto which a little water is poured, the main thing is that the bottom of the pot does not reach the liquid. The plant is very fond of being in the kitchen, as it is filled with wet vapors.

Watering peperomia. The plant is watered systematically and in moderation, as soon as almost all the substrate in the pot dries out. When months with moderate and high temperatures come, this procedure is repeated once every 10 days, in cold weather watering is reduced to once every 2-3 weeks. The main thing is to try not to flood the soil in the pot, since peperomia has leaves and shoots filled with moisture (excess water accumulates in them) and if the watering becomes too abundant, this will lead to the early decay of the plant. If, nevertheless, the soil is flooded, then the plant will signal the formation of brown warty growths on the leaves. Irrigation water must be taken softened, this is done by sedimentation or filtration to remove harmful and lime impurities. You can also soften the water with sour peat - a handful of peat wrapped in gauze is dipped into a bucket of water overnight. It is important that for peperomias, the leaf plates of which are not so fleshy (for example, Sanders peperomia, gray-silver peperomia, etc.), watering should be carried out more often, since their water supply is much less than that of other species (for example, dull-leaved or clusielle). Their potted soil also dries well, but the pot should not become light enough.

Fertilizing peperomia. In order to feed the plant, it is necessary to choose fertilizing in liquid mixtures for house plants with a complex of minerals. This procedure is repeated at two-week intervals during the activation of the growth of peperomia (from the beginning of March to the first days of autumn). The dosage is taken halved than it is stated by the manufacturer.

  • Soil selection and transplantation of peperomia. If the peperomia variety is distinguished by small leaf plates, then it is recommended to transplant this plant annually. Plants with large leaves require transplanting every two years, or if the growth of peperomia has slowed down significantly - this indicates a strong compaction of the soil in the pot, it has become sufficiently compressed. The pot for transplanting is chosen only a little more than the previous one, since the root system of this plant grows little.

  • The soil mixture is chosen nutritious and loose enough so that it is difficult to arrange a plant bay in it. The selected land must have good air and water permeability. From purchased substrates, a universal soil is suitable for plants growing indoors, but it is possible to use a filler for palms or ficuses, but since they are too saturated with peat components, such substrates must be additionally lightened by introducing special leavening agents - perlite, agroperlite or vermiculite. Fine gravel or zeolite granules can also be used. The peperomia soil should be acidic with a pH of 5.8–6.

    You can also make your own soil mixture based on the following components:

      leafy soil, humus soil, coconut substrate, fine gravel (everything is taken in equal parts)

    leaf land, humus, peat land, river sand (in proportions 2: 1: 1: 1, respectively)

  • garden soil, leafy soil (humus), turf soil, peat soil, coarse sand (perlite or any baking powder) (in proportions 2: 2: 2: 2: 1).

  • These amazing peperomia flowers

    The energy of contradiction and the desire to do everything in defiance of others fills the atmosphere with similar elements with long threads. These threads begin to get tangled over time, forming networks in the space of the house. Even if a person does not show his contradiction in any way, these networks still envelop the space. What can cause, for example, unreasonable laughter of loved ones, or, on the contrary, a painful and difficult condition.

    And to prevent this from happening, get a bushy peperomia in your house. These plants will not allow the energy of contradiction to form networks, keeping the atmosphere of the house clean. Where these plants grow, an atmosphere of benevolence reigns. Peperomias adjust energy in such a way that a person has a desire to sincerely care for their loved ones. The atmosphere of such a house begins to rejoice people, warming the soul.

    Blooming peperomia. Illustration for the article is used under a standard license ©

    Friendly peperomies are useful for those people in whose soul contradictions are simply at war with each other, for those who cannot quickly switch from one topic to another, for those who cannot relax after a working day and think about work for a long time, and for those who, after listening to a sincere, lyrical song, for a long time cannot collect their thoughts.

    This plant is especially necessary for those people who do not tolerate when others contradict him, or someone does not like this person, not like he used to do. Cute peperomias help a person to react to things that are unpleasant for him more tolerantly.

    If there is such a person in your environment who ruthlessly criticizes others for doing something differently than he wants, give him this beautiful bush.

    The leaves of the silvery, ivy and wrinkled peperomia are colored like a zebra. And, if you noticed, then the light stripes are slightly larger than the dark ones. This color can tell about another amazing property of these indoor flowers. The thing is that these wonderful plants help a person get out of the black life strip.

    Peperomia in a pot. Illustration for the article is used under a standard license ©

    Thanks to the subtle effect of this plant, a person comes to understand what needs to be done, how to behave, so that the black streak ends as soon as possible, and joyful events come. Also, this plant is a must-have for those people who like to cry and complain about their fate.

    Peperomias have a positive effect on those organs controlled by Cancer: the digestive system, mammary glands, gallbladder.

    This is how wonderful this plant is and how much benefit it can bring to its owner. So, if you are sure that everything written is related to you, or your loved ones, then feel free to start this plant.

    Breeding rules by cuttings

    Gardeners use both lignified and green cuttings to propagate their favorite varieties.

    Lignified cuttings

    Last year's branches are used for planting material. Cuttings are removed in the second part of September. If you do this later, then they will not have time to take root before the onset of frost.

    The upper part of the cutting is cut at an angle, and the lower one in a straight line. The length of the planting material should be within 20 cm with several full-fledged buds.

    Planting cuttings is carried out in a moist nutrient substrate at an angle. In this case, no more than two buds should remain above the ground.

    When planting, it is necessary to monitor the distance of the branches. The optimal indicators are 10-12 cm. After the procedure, water and mulch the soil abundantly.

    Propagation using green cuttings

    This method is used less often, as it requires some effort. Planting cuttings is carried out only in a cold greenhouse. The soil should be composed of deciduous soil and compost. You can also add a small amount of coarse sand to the composition.

    Cuttings are removed only from healthy and large branches. Their length should not exceed 15 cm. The lower leaves must be removed, and the upper ones must be shortened by half.

    For fast rooting, it is recommended to make several shallow cuts in the lower part of the planting material and one under the upper leaf plate.

    Before planting chokeberry, you need to dip the cuttings into a growth stimulator. They are kept in this state for 8 hours. At the end of this time, they land. Instances are placed at an angle, keeping a distance of 4 cm. Keep the greenhouse at a temperature not lower than 25 C, periodically watering.

    You can transplant green cuttings after 10 days. For the first few months, young chokeberry is often and abundantly irrigated, weeds are removed and the soil is loosened. They are transplanted to a permanent place in the first month of autumn.

    Peperomia caprata lilian is a herbaceous perennial shrub that belongs to the pepper family. The plant is native to the tropical regions of South America and India. Ampel varieties grow on trees, shrubs and creeping species choose places with a dense litter of moss. Peperomia has a thick, fleshy stem and dark green heart-shaped leaves that contain water in case of drought. The name of the flower in translation from Greek means "like pepper", this is due to the peculiar aroma that occurs if you rub the leaf with your fingers.

    This herb is compact, reaching 30 cm in height and width. Inflorescences are oblong, ear-like. White small flowers are similar to flags, they are located on a long peduncle. The buds are similar to the flowers of the lily, it is for this reason that the flower received its second name "lilian". The Peperomia Lilian variety is obtained by natural selection based on the Peperomia Cuperata variety.

    Florist reviews: is it easy to keep peperomia at home

    Peperomia is an unpretentious plant. It rarely blooms, and the flowers resemble the arrows of a plantain. If anyone knows how other types of peperomias bloom, they all bloom the same way. Its leaves are very delicate. They shine so nicely with silver. With proper care and under optimal conditions, it grows very quickly. I presented many of my acquaintances with such handsome men. For pests, this plant is unattractive, which is important, but, as I noticed, it is very sensitive: as soon as a person with an evil eye praises it, it immediately begins to wither. And here the most important thing is to pay increased attention to it. This flower grows in his son's room, he is very comfortable there. Lovers of indoor flowers, give yourself the pleasure of owning such beauty!

    I have had this plant for a long time and I realized that I do not even know what it is called, in general, "peperomia blunt-leaved" from the pepper family, a tropical flower, loves warmth and moisture. Peperomia is completely unpretentious, does not require special care, does not need feeding, I water it, like all flowers, several times a week, sprinkle it with water. This flower grows VERY fast! I cut off small branches so that there is such a small bush. The shape of the plant can be adjusted by yourself, you can let it hang down with branches and it will grow like a climbing flower. Peperomia propagates quite simply: tear off a leaf and put it in water, after a couple of weeks it will start up a root with which you can already plant it in the ground. I am pleased with its rich green color, and I also read that dull peperomia removes formaldehyde and some other toxins from the air, actively enriches the air with oxygen, so the flower is doubly pleasant to me!


    Peperomias form rat-tails-like inflorescences of tiny greenish flowers. Only these properties will help you determine that some unfamiliar plant is peperomia. There are 3 types that have been popular for over a few years. These are Peperomia caperata, Peperomia hederaefolia and Peperomia magnoliaefolia. An experienced florist can easily recognize these species, but besides these species, there are many others. There are also varieties of ampelous, bushy and erect, with juicy, wavy, smooth or pubescent, green or variegated, and even striped, like a watermelon, leaves.

    Once I was presented with a plant with original inflorescences of a pale green color of a bizarre shape - and not flowers as if, but curled stems covered with something. I am not one of the most enthusiastic flower growers, but I gladly accepted such an interesting "miracle Yudo". Its name is wrinkled peperomia (for the leaves - "morels"). Imagine my surprise when I learned that a flower with glossy waxy leaves growing at my work and not particularly attracting my attention is also peperomia (already magnolia-leaved)! True, she never bloomed with me there - maybe I would draw an analogy by the flowers. In any case, for me, a huge plus that these flowers have is relatively easy care. I water them about once a week (more often in summer in the heat). No need to pour - the leaves begin to rot. The lighting for the "morel" is moderate, it is on my window, but in the shade - it does not like the bright sun, the leaves become small and quickly dry out. And magnolia-leaved at work in the shade - and feels good. It blooms for a long time, several months. It was such that the "wrinkled" one almost died - in the fall, when it is already cool, and there is no heating, I managed to pour it over. The roots rotted, I replaced the earth, washed the roots, removed the bad ones - nothing, literally got better in a week. And with magnolia-leaf, there are no problems at all. They propagate by cuttings, they take root very quickly. So I recommend it to everyone who is in the slightest degree familiar with floriculture.

    This interesting plant - peperomia - has settled on my windowsill since the end of summer. In a flower shop, due to a lack of light, he was discounted to 50 rubles, he had to take on the mission to save him. When I brought it home, he quickly came to his senses, from which I made the following conclusions about this plant: 1. Unpretentious: does not require special attention and care. Watered - well, forgot to fertilize - will survive. You do not need to spray, it tolerates room air well. 2. Do not pour it over: the leaves immediately become soft. The plant may die from overflow. I try to water all my plants often and little by little. 3. Grows better without a bright sun: on the east or west side, and not in the south. 4. You can also transplant into shallow pots: peperomia roots, like grass, are located shallow. Peperomia got the second name because of its spike-shaped inflorescences - "mouse tails".

    Video: home beauty peperomia

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    Lovers of decorative foliage plants will undoubtedly be interested in the exotic beauty - peperomia. It attracts flower growers not only by its appearance, but also by its unpretentious care. The flower is resistant to various diseases and pests, grows well even in the shade. Avoid hypothermia, drafts, occasionally water and feed peperomia, and it will thank you for its spectacular foliage and graceful appearance.